This work is presented as an outlook of the first three centuries of the University of Salamanca, from its origins to the significant transformations of the Renaissance. It combines direct documentary research with a wide bibliographic background on the context and framework of the European universities of its time. The book is divided in two parts: a general narration intended for the average and cultured reader; and an erudite complement of more than three hundred notes for specialized researchers, who will find in them many of the open problems that are currently being debated. This work intends, also, to approach the different historical perspective of this institution: the conflicts of power that shaped it, the funding that made its existence possible, the students and teachers that were part of it; and the main disciplines and intellectual currents that inhabited the University along the three centuries that are explored here. Finally, the text is accompanied by a careful selection of pictures and images, which shows a collection of the main remains of our existing heritage.